If I were to use polypropylene pipe that does not corrode, would this have the same negative characteristics as PVC piping?
There have been several studies done looking at the effects of different plumping materials on microbial and Legionella growth in water systems. Any internal surface within a water system will eventually establish a biofilm growth. The speed and extent of the biofilm growth does vary with the material, however there is no conclusive data correlating biofilm quantity to Legionella (i.e. water system will have biofilm but there may or may not be Legionella growth).
There is evidence indicating increased biofilm and Legionella growth on various types of piping material with elastomeric materials, appearing to best support biofouling in short term studies. Long term studies (over 200 days) have shown that piping material may not factor in influencing biofilm or Legionella growth.
Regarding your specific question, a 1994 study by Rogers et al. found the same order of magnitude of microorganism growth and L. pneumophila colonization on polypropylene and PVC during the 28 day model system experiment, suggesting no difference between these specific piping materials.
Based on the current data, there would not be a significant microbial difference between polypropylene and PVC piping when used in water system construction.